Dosha theory which help in diagnosis of the diseases
According to ayurveda three doshas or three energetic forces control the activities of the body. These doshas are
VATA: The Vata dosha is the most important of the three doshas.
It has been said in ayurveda classic books that pitta , Kapha and all other body tissues are considered lame without assistance of VATA .
Vata dominates the lower part of the body, which is below umbilicus.
The movements of body fluid, metabolism, elimination of waste products, semen ejaculation, pushing the fetus out of body, relaying stimulus to brain and response to organs and tissues, heart beat, respiration, body movements etc are assisted by VATA.
Vata dominated regions are intestines, lumbar region, ears, bones and skin.
Vata gets vitiated due to following reasons.
1.Controlling natural urges like urination, defecation, hunger, thirst, etc.
3.Irregular food habits.
4.Talking in a high pitch.
5.Over physical and mental exertion.
6.Consumption of spicy, dry, bitter foods.
7.Exposure to severe dry and cold climate.
The opposites of above-mentioned reason normalize the vitiated vata.
PITTA: The pitta dosha assists the body fire or Agni, which plays a major role in bodys metabolic activities. The locations where pitta dominates are digestive system, skin, eyes, brain, and blood.
Pitta maintains body temperature. The secretions like digestive juices pigments like melanin (bhrajaka pitta), hemoglobin (ranjaka pitta) are all types of pitta.
Pitta is dominant in regions of Umbilicus, stomach, sweat, lymph, blood, eyes and skin.
Vata gets vitiated due to following reasons.
1.Excess consumption of spicy, sour, salty foods.
2.Consuming alcohol in excess.
3.Over exposure to hot sunny climate.
5.Using dried vegetables.
6.Indigestion of food.
The opposites of above-mentioned reason normalize the vitiated pitta.
KAPHA: Kapha provides bulk to body, lubrications, moistness, fertility, stability, strength, and memory. Helps in binding process wherever necessary.
This is heaviest of all doshas.
Kapha dominated regions are chest, neck, head, stomach, body fat, nose and tongue
Kapha gets vitiated due to following reasons.
1.Sleeping in daytime.
2.Consuming sweets , chilled food, in excess.
3.Consuming fish, sesame, sugarcane, milk and milk products.
The opposites of above-mentioned reason normalize the vitiated kapha.
When these doshas are in balanced condition the body remains healthy.
If these doshas get imbalanced the body succumbs to diseases.
Doshas get imbalanced frequently due to change in climate, seasons, lifestyles, diet etc.
The treatment is to bring back the doshas to normalcy and expel the toxin or ama produced during the imbalanced condition.
Causes of Genital Herpes
Herpes is caused by a virus the herpes simplex virus (HSV), which belongs to the same family of viruses that cause chickenpox.
There are two types of herpes simplex viruses
1.Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and mostly causes oral herpes
2.Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). And mostly causes genital herpes
However, both type-1 and type-2 can occur in the genitals, oral area or both.
Due to unhealthy life styles and diet the delicate balance between doshas get disturbed. This disturbs the body fire or Agni.
Agni is the body fire, which is responsible for transformation of one substance to another.
It breaks down the food substances, eliminates toxins and wastes, maintains body temperature, and resists the invasion of microbes by maintaining strong body immunity.
The body fire, which is assisted by balanced doshas, digests the food completely to form Pakwa Anna rasa (the liquid form of food which is completely digested by digestive enzymes), which is ready to get absorbed by body tissues.
According to ayurveda Pakwa Anna Rasa nourishes the body and its components to keep the body devoid of diseases.
But when body fire is impaired there will be an incomplete digestion of food forming Apakwa Rasa (indigested food).
The indigested food fails to nourish the body components leading to lowered body resistance.)
The disturbed Agni fails to digest the food and toxins get accumulated in body due to improper metabolism.
Accumulation of toxins reduces the body immunity and paves the way for invasion by microbes.
When a person who has low immunity comes in contact with HSV virus, he/she gets the genital or oral herpes.
2.Sleeping in afternoons.
3.Over physical exertion.
4.Over mental exertion
5.Consuming food frequently even when not hungry.
6.Constant exposure to hot sunny climates
Excessive consumption of
1. Salty, sour, hot, spicy food.
5.Charred and overcooked food.
6.Sesame, Bengal gram, horse gram, sesame oil, rice flour, garlic, fish.
1.Curds, salt, mushrooms, bamboo shoots, sour fruits, meat, prawn, pork, should not be consumed with milk. The above-mentioned foods should not be consumed by mixing one item with another.
2.Sprouts, honey and milk should not be consumed with meat and fish.
3.Fish & milk: fish &sugarcane juice; jaggery & pork; honey & pork; milk & mango; banana & milk; are opposite foods.
The Transmission Of genital Herpes
A person can get genital herpes in following conditions
1.If he is sexual active and when he performs sex (oral or genital) with infected partners.
2.A person who has oral herpes transmits herpes to genital organs of a partner during oral sex and a person who has genital herpes transmits this to his partner during coitus when they have a genital contact.
3.The disease gets transmitted when mucous membrane comes in contact with infected area.
The disease gets transmitted mostly during active phase. But it may spread even during asymptomatic (when person is free of symptoms for a particular duration) phase. The virus needs a fluid media for its transportation. The body fluids like saliva, semen, vaginal tract secretions etc. Mucous membranes in mouth, vagina, urethra or open wounds facilitate the virus invasion due to their moistness.
In Genital herpes there is an imbalance of all three doshas (VATA, PITTA, KAPHA), which in turn vitiate lasika (lymph), blood (rakta), muscle (mamsa) and skin (twacha).
The imbalanced doshas vitiate skin and the immunity of skin cells is lowered. The virus attacks these weak cells and starts exhibiting symptoms on affected area.
4.Feeling of constriction
5.A sensation of ant creeping
6.Many small eruptions gathering in a small area.
7.These eruptions or blisters burst soon with exudates.
8.These blisters will have different colors according to involvement of doshas. (Blackish red or blue in vata, red, yellow, copper colored in pitta, shades of white in kapha).
The weakened body immune system tries to resist the virus invasion but fails to achieve the goal. In this futile attempt the following systemic symptoms are exhibited.
5.Increased frequency of urination.
Imbalanced vata causes the symptoms like pain, swelling and body ache
The imbalanced pitta and vitiated blood and skin cause
2.Change the color of skin,
3.Cause burning sensation, and fever.
The imbalanced kapha and vitiated lymph cause itching, tingling sensation.
After the first attack the virus moves from skin through the nerve paths to base of the nerve and becomes inactive. Now the herpes infected person will be devoid of all symptoms. But the imbalance of doshas still persists.
Reactivation of Virus to cause outbreaks
At unpredictable times, the virus becomes active. It multiplies and resurfaces on skin by traveling through the nerve path and exhibits the symptoms locally. The severity of symptoms of out break depends on the strength of body immunity.
The pelvis or shroni, nerves and skin are dominated by vata. When vata gets vitiated due to precipitating factors, it reactivates the virus dormant in base of nerve end and the virus travel through nerve paths to reach the skin surface.
As we know the outbreaks have few precipitating factors like
1.Excessive exposure to sun.
10.Genital trauma and intercourse.
11.Repeated infections such as a cold or pneumonia.
These factors increase vata and increased vata activates the virus, which is dormant.
Low Immunity The systemically imbalanced doshas interfere with the body metabolism by vitiating the body fire (agni). This leads to indigestion and malassimilation of nutrients, which in turn causes poor immunity. Due to decreased immunity the body fails to offer resistance to outbreaks.
Ayurveda Tips to avoid outbreaks
1.Spicy, sour, fried and junk food, which aggravates vata.
3.Sleeping in afternoon.
4.Meat products over fried or deep fried in oil or fat.
5. Charred and overcooked food.
6. Consuming opposite food like fish and milk etc
7. Physical exertion after a meal
8. Taking bath immediately after exercise or heavy outdoor work.
Include honey, pomegranate, and fruits of Emblica officinalis, legumes, dates and raisins in your diet.
Practice Yoga and Meditation to control emotional disturbances
1. Sushruta Samhita
Fever: What You Need To Know In 2020
Amidst the global pandemic of the Coronavirus, it’s essential to evaluate the onset of a fever – and then what to do…
Two Types of Fever
Fever manifests in two ways, from our external environment (infectious disease or trauma) and from our internal environment (morbid dosa/s)
Fever it’s a sign of your body’s natural fight against infection. For adults, a fever is when your temperature is higher than 100. 4°f.
For kids, a fever is when their temperature is higher than 100. 4°f (measured rectally); 99. 5°f (measured orally); or 99°f (measured under the arm).
What Is Normal Body Temperature?
For over 100 years, 98. 6 degrees f (or 37 degrees c) has been accepted as the standard for a normal body temp.
This became the standard after a german physician, dr. Carl wunderlich, recorded auxiliary (armpit) temperatures from about 25,000 people in the 1800s.
With that data, he concluded that the average temperature was 98. 6 degrees f, or 37. 0 degrees c. /
Not everyone’s “normal” body temperature is the same.
Yours could be a whole degree different than someone else’s. A german doctor in the 19th century set the standard at 98. 6 f, but more recent studies say the baseline for most people is closer to 98. 2 f.
A person is considered to have fever if they have an axillary temperature above 38 degrees celsius.
Therefore, a body temperature of 40. 3 – 40. 4 to 40. 5 means high fever.
Fever should be understood as a defense mechanism of the body, warning us that something is happening; therefore it is important to seek medical advice.
Normal adult human body temperature varies between 36. 5-37. 5 or more.
General rules:- hypothermia, when the temperature is less than 36. – feverishness, when the temperature is between 37. 1 to 37. 9- hypothermia or fever, when the temperature is more than 38.
Fever occurs when an area in your brain called the hypothalamus (hi-poe-thal-uh-muhs) — also known as your body’s “thermostat” — shifts the set point of your normal body temperature upward.
When this happens, you may feel chilled and add layers of clothing or wrap up in a blanket, or you may shiver to generate more body heat, eventually resulting in an elevated body temperature.
Soak in a lukewarm bath for five to 10 minutes at a time. This may be unpleasant but it can be highly effective in dropping your body temperature rapidly.
Mothernature. Com warns against using bath water that is so cool it causes shivering.
The water should feel slightly warm but not as warm as would normally be used.
If the water causes shivering the body temperature can rise.
The bath can be repeated every few hours or as soon as the body temperature goes up.
An alternative to a full bath is to sponge lukewarm water onto the body or place wet cloths on the forehead, back of the neck and chest.
Everything You Need to Know About Fever
Dengue fever is a serious illness that is spread by infected mosquitoes.
If you come down with this virus you may experience symptoms including a rash, nausea, body aches and fever.
These symptoms can last for several weeks. Rarely, dengue fever can develop into a deadly illness.
No vaccinations are available for dengue fever, so if you are traveling to areas affected by dengue fever, take special precautions to protect yourself.
Insect repellents containing deet can help reduce the number of mosquito bites you get, but if you suspect that you have dengue fever, you should head to the nearest emergency center.
Recognizing a fever can enable you to get treatment and proper monitoring for it.
Normal body temperature is typically around 98. 6°f (37°c). However, the normal body temperature for each person can vary slightly.
Normal body temperature may also fluctuate depending on the time of day. It tends to be lower in the morning and higher in the late afternoon and evening.
Function of fever:
When a child or parent becomes feverish with shivers, chills, and sweats, our first thought is to get the temperature down.
Pharmacies sell billions of fever-reducing pills like aspirin and acetaminophen every year, and schools often insist that students stay home until their fever is gone.
Fever is the result of your immune system’s response to a foreign invader.
These foreign invaders include viruses, bacteria, fungi, drugs, or other toxins.
These foreign invaders are considered fever-producing substances (called pyrogens), which trigger the body’s immune response.
Pyrogens signal the hypothalamus in the brain to increase the body temperature set point in order to help the body fight off the infection.
Fever helps your body fight infections by stimulating your immune system: your body’s natural defence.
By increasing your body’s temperature, a fever makes it harder for the bacteria and viruses that cause infections to survive.
It is considered a fever when the patient has an axillary temperature above 38 degrees celsius or 100. 4 degrees farenheit, so having a body temperature from 40° c/ 104° f means a high fever.
What causes a fever?
Introduction and application:
Fever, also called pyrexia, abnormally high body temperature.
Fever is a characteristic of many different diseases. For example, although most often associated with infection, fever is also observed in other pathologic states, such as cancer , coronary artery occlusion, and certain disorders of the blood.
It also may result from physiological stresses, such as strenuous exercise or ovulation , or from environmentally induced heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
High body temperature is one of the first symptoms of illness. According to cleveland clinic, 100. 4°f is considered a fever for adults, and children may feel feverish at slightly lower temperatures, depending on how you take the temperature.
In an adult, any temperature over 103 degrees fahrenheit is considered dangerous, according to the mayo clinic.
For babies under three months, a temperature over 100. 4 degrees fahrenheit requires a call to a doctor, while for older children and infants, any fever over 102 degrees fahrenheit or one that lasts longer than one day necessitates an examination by a doctor.
Fever in Adults and Children
Adults and children should seek immediate medical attention for any fever of 104 degrees fahrenheit or higher or for any fever accompanied by one or more of the following:.
Older infants, children and adults will not usually need any medical treatment for mild fever, especially if you are otherwise well. However, you should see your doctor if you:
have a very high fever (over 40ºc)
are still feverish after 3 days of home treatment or seem to be getting sicker.
A fever is usually diagnosed using a thermometer.
A variety of different thermometers are available, including traditional glass and mercury ones used for oral or rectal temperature readings and more sophisticated electronic ones that can be inserted in the ear to quickly register the body’s temperature.
For adults and older children, temperature readings are usually taken orally.
Younger children who cannot or will not hold a thermometer in their mouths can have their temperature taken by placing an oral thermometer under their armpit. Infants generally have their temperature taken rectally using a rectal thermometer.
As public health officials struggle to contain the spread of the coronavirus , determining whether a person has a fever is now a high-stakes matter, and using temperature guns to screen people has become a visible strategy for detecting possible cases. “any infectious disease — one of the cardinal signs of infection is raised body temperature,” says waleed javaid, the director of infection prevention and control for the mount sinai downtown network. But there’s a catch: “that means you know the body temperature before you raised it”.
When we feel that our body is burning with fever, the first thought is to get rid of it. It is especially difficult to be relaxed about fever when it attacks our kids.
We are ready with pills, cold showers, compresses, cold drinks, anything to bring the temperature down.
But, fever or increased body temperature is an important part of our body’s defense against infections. When we are attacked by an invader, our body reacts by rising the temperature.
Most viruses and bacteria that cause infections thrive at 98. 6 °f there is also a theory that our immune system works best at higher than normal body temperature.
It does not mean that we can ignore fever when it hits us and keep going on like it is all normal. It is important to distinguish fevers that require urgent trip to the doctor, and others that are better left alone, to do the job of fighting infection, with a little help of rest, hot soup and some vitamin c.
When to Call the Doctor for a Fever
A fever is a higher-than-normal body temperature. It’s usually a sign that the body is waging a war against infection. Here’s how to tell when you need to be concerned about a fever: if your baby is under 3 months old and has a temperature of 100. 4 degrees f or higher, call the doctor immediately.
A baby this young needs to be checked for serious infection or disease.
On the home front, not much will change for parents.
The cleveland clinic defines a fever as a temperature over 100. 4 degrees fahrenheit, but that doesn’t mean that every kid with a fever needs medical attention. You should save the doctor calls for these situations:.
Fever that is not associated with serious medical conditions is typically caused by:
a viral infection
if the patient is not responding
if the patient is agitated or confused for no reason
Once at the hospital, the doctor will require specific information to make a proper diagnosis.
You will be asked as to when the fever started, if you have allergies, or if you’re taking medications.
The doctor may also ask about other symptoms or any other known illnesses.
Depending on the result, the doctor may order different examinations and laboratory tests to pinpoint the exact problem.
In most cases, fever can be managed without seeing a doctor.
When deciding whether to call the doctor or not, it’s better to look at all of the symptoms, because the degree of fever doesn’t tell you how sick someone is.
If there are symptoms other than fever that are bothersome, a health care professional should be contacted.
Although a fever is easy to measure, determining its cause can be hard.
Besides a physical exam , your doctor will ask about symptoms and conditions, medications , and if you’ve recently traveled to areas with infections or have other infection risks.
A malaria infection, for example, may be have a fever that typically recurs. Some areas of the u. S. Are hotspots for infections such as lyme disease and rocky mountain spotted fever.
A temperature slightly above normal to a temperature of 100. 4°f (38°c) is called a low grade fever and usually not a cause for worry unless it continues to rise.
A temperature that is higher than a low grade fever should be monitored and a fever of 104°f (40°c) or higher can be dangerous and a doctor should be called immediately.
A high fever can cause convulsions and delusions, especially in infants, children and the elderly.
Fever - an Ayurvedic Perspective
Amidst the global pandemic of the Coronavirus, it's essential to evaluate the onset of a fever - and then what to do... Two Types of Fever Fever manifests in two ways, from our external environment (infectious disease or trauma) and from our internal environment (morbid dosa/s). Fever is both acute and chronic, and both conditions can occur from either an external or internal cause (1). Early Subtle Signs of Fever Ayurveda recognizes there are early subtle signs before the onset of fever. These early signs may continue through the course of the fever. These early signs or symptoms occur according to each person's predisposition and the morbid dosa/s involved (1). unusual taste in mouth - aversion to the sweet taste favoring sour, salty or pungent foods - aversion to food low appetite - indigestion watery eyes or restless eyes excessive sleep - excessive yawning - insomnia shivering - horripilation exhaustion with no reason - body-ache - malaise or lethargy mental agitation - giddiness or delirium intolerant to sound - sensitive to the scent of flowers/perfumes aversion to cold, wind or heat or sensitive teeth Ayurvedic recommendations When acute fever symptoms arise, Ayurveda recommends a light fasting diet. It is thought that fever originates in the stomach, by overeating ama develops and will increase fever. Taking herbal Kashayams, Kwathams or Arishtams are useful for early symptoms of fever, along with sodhana or samana therapies, fumigation, herbal smoke, herbal eyewash, and a light soup diet (1). In all types of chronic fever, the internal use of ghritam is recommended. Ghrita pacifies vata by its unctuousness, pitta by its coldness, and kapha when combined with kapha pacifying herbs. Ghrita is useful like a fire subsides with water. As water is sprinkled on burning houses to douse the fire, ghee is administered to manage chronic fever (2). References: 1. Caraka Samhita, Nidana sthāna 1/32-36 2. Caraka Samhita, Nidana sthāna 1/37-40 HERBAL SUPPORT FOR FEVER Amrita Arishtam – useful for chronic fever of undetermined origin, weakness, aches. Sudarshana Asavam – useful for all types of chronic fever. Kachuradi Churnam – useful in fever, headache, vertigo, sleeplessness, anxiety disorders. Rasnadi Churnam – useful in rhinitis, headache, fever. Indukanta Ghritam - useful in various debilitating disorders, ascites, gastric discomforts, acid-reflux, intermittent fever, and fatigue - increases resistance power. Vilwadi Gulika - useful in mild fever, poisoning of different origin, diarrhea and mal-absorption. Amritotharam Kashayam - fever of varied etiology, early stages of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever. Brahmidrakshadi Kashayam - useful in fever, complications from alcohol intoxication, vomiting, vertigo, burning sensation, general debility, liver disorders, anxiety, stress, insomnia. Jivantyadi Kashayam - useful for the treatment of fever with eruptions. Shadangam Kashayam - indigestion, fever, and excessive thirst. Aragwadhadi Kwatham - useful in kapha disorders related to fever, skin lesions, itches, ulcers. Balaguluchyadi Kwatham - useful in rheumatoid arthritis, swelling in the joints, burning sensation, pain, and fever. Dhanwantaram Kwatham - useful in fever, post-natal care, fracture of bone, anxiety, mental stress, gas trouble, pelvic inflammatory diseases, urinary obstruction, and hernia. Guluchyadi Kwatham – useful in fever with a burning sensation and excessive body heat, rheumatism, gout, urticaria, indigestion. Indukantam Kwatham – useful in various debilitating disorders, ascites, gastric discomforts, acid-reflux, intermittent fever, and fatigue - increases resistance power. Nimbamritadi Panchatiktam Kwatham - useful in fever, boils and arthritis, detoxifies the blood, prevents spreading of infectious diseases such as Dengue and Malaria. Sitajvarari Kwatham - useful in acute fever, rhinorrhea, congestion of throat and body ache. Lakshadi Oil - useful in convalescence of chronic fever, psychosis, seizure disorders, promotes growth in infants and children.
The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease
Microbial invasion is initially countered by innate defenses that preexist in all individuals and begin to act within minutes following encounter with the infectious agent.
Microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals enter the body at different sites and produce disease symptoms by a variety of mechanisms.
Microbial invasion is initially countered by innate defenses that preexist in all individuals and begin to act within minutes following encounter with the infectious agent.
Only when the innate defenses are bypassed, evaded or overwhelmed is an adaptive immune response required.
The innate immune system (iis) is usually sufficient to prevent the body from being routinely overpowered by these organisms.
However, once they have gained a hold, they require the concerted efforts of both the iis and the adaptive immune system (ais).
In the first part of this chapter, different arms and principles of the iis and the ais will be briefly discussed.
The second part of the chapter will discuss the process of fighting a bacterial and a viral infection, with an emphasis on the cross talk between the two parts of the immune system.
Vaccination can be defined as the process of administration of an antigenic material (vaccine) into a living mechanism.
The clinical effect desired is to cause stimulation of an individual’s immune system in order to develop an adaptive immunity against the pathogen constituting the vaccine.
Vaccination is the most effective method of prevention for infectious diseases. Vaccination journal publishing quality manuscript receiving throughout the globe.
The human immune system has two levels of immunity: specific and non-specific immunity.
Through non-specific immunity, also called innate immunity, the human body protects itself against foreign material that is perceived to be harmful.
Microbes as small as viruses and bacteria can be attacked, as can larger organisms such as worms. Collectively, these organisms are called pathogens when they cause disease in the host.
Like any fighting force, the immune system army marches on its stomach.
Healthy immune system warriors need good, regular nourishment.
Scientists have long recognized that people who live in poverty and are malnourished are more vulnerable to infectious diseases.
Whether the increased rate of disease is caused by malnutrition’s effect on the immune system, however, is not certain.
There are still relatively few studies of the effects of nutrition on the immune system of humans, and even fewer studies that tie the effects of nutrition directly to the development (versus the treatment) of diseases.
Our bodies fight infectious diseases such as coronavirus through our immune systems.
The body produces antibodies in response to intruder organisms to fight and remove them. Once the body has fought off a disease, it retains a “memory” of the germ, and how to fight it better and faster next time.
Formerly it was believed that some human races possessed an absolute immunity to certain specific infectious diseases.
Yellow fever, for instance, was supposed and is regarded even now as of little or no danger to negroes.
The natives in yellow fever districts were said to escape the disease because they were “acclimatized. ” livingstone declared that the native african was immune to syphilis, but unfortunately it has turned out that in this case the supposed immunity meant only this, that up to that time and for some time afterward syphilis had not been introduced into those parts of africa traversed by the great explorer.
So also has it been claimed that negroes are immune or but little susceptible to the malarial diseases. On the other hand, the colored race has been regarded as peculiarly susceptible to smallpox.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens , from viruses to parasitic worms , and distinguish them from the organism’s own healthy tissue.
In many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune system: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system.
Both subsystems use humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity to perform their functions. In humans, the blood–brain barrier , blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier , and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system , which protects the brain.
Infection and Disease
Lack of sleep compromises the immune system and therefore you should have adequate sleep every day.
Adequate sleep helps the immune system to rebuild and replenish making it much more effective in fighting infections and diseases. Inadequate sleep is highly associated with reduction in the number of t-cells.
Sleep deprived people are more likely to get sick after being exposed to viruses such as the common cold.
Therefore, you need to get enough sleep to increase immunity.
The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body from harmful germs.
When bacteria, viruses, and other germs invade your body, they multiply and attack. This invasion is called an infection. Infections cause the diseases that make you sick.
The term “herd immunity” refers to a means of protecting a whole community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace.
Vaccination protects more than just the vaccinated person. By breaking the chain of an infection’s transmission, vaccination can also protect people who haven’t been immunized.
But to work, this protection requires that a certain percentage of people in a community be vaccinated.
What factors determine where that critical-mass threshold lies? and once it’s in place, how does herd immunity cocoon the most vulnerable among us?.
Let me take the arguments on their merits.
The stated aim has been to achieve “herd immunity” in order to manage the outbreak and prevent a catastrophic “second wave” next winter – even if matt hancock has tried to put that particular genie back in the bottle this weekend.
A large proportion of the population is at lower risk of developing severe disease: roughly speaking anyone up to the age of 40.
So the reasoning goes that even though in a perfect world we’d not want anyone to take the risk of infection, generating immunity in younger people is a way of protecting the population as a whole.
Vaccines help you develop immunity (protection from disease) by imitating an infection and triggering an immune response.
But unlike the real infection, vaccines do not cause illness.
Vaccines are made using either a weakened or killed version of the pathogen (virus or bacteria) that causes the disease, or parts of the pathogen (antigens).
Once in your body, the vaccine triggers your adaptive immune system to respond (in the same way it would to the actual pathogen), producing antibodies and training your body to recognize and fight off the pathogen.
That way, if you are ever exposed to the actual pathogen in the future, your immune system is able to quickly recognize it and destroy it before it makes you sick.
This is how you get immunity from vaccines.
Physical activity may help flush bacteria out of the lungs and airways.
This may reduce your chance of getting a cold, flu, or other illness.
Exercise causes change in antibodies and white blood cells (wbc).
Wbcs are the body’s immune system cells that fight disease.
These antibodies or wbcs circulate more rapidly, so they could detect illnesses earlier than they might have before.
However, no one knows whether these changes help prevent infections.
We developed a deterministic dynamic transmission model with age structure that tracks the population with respect to nov infection and immunity status ( figure 1 ; technical appendix ).
Here we describe the basic structure of the model (model a), which forms the basis for 5 other iterations (models b–f, described below).
The models track 5 classes of persons: 1) susceptible to infection and disease (s), 2) exposed but not yet symptomatic (e), 3) infected with symptoms (i), 4) infected but asymptomatic (a), and 5) immune to disease, but not infection (r). In model d, we included an additional class for genetically resistant persons (g).
Naturally acquired passive immunity [ edit ]
Skills to develop give an example of naturally acquired active immunity. Give two examples of naturally acquired passive immunity and state why this is important to newborns and infants.
Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, when antibodies are passed from the maternal blood into the fetal bloodstream.
Immunity is the state of protection against infectious disease conferred either through an immune response generated by immunization or previous infection, or by other non-immunological factors.
There are two ways to acquire passive resistance against disease: passive natural and passive artificial.
Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal blood into the fetal bloodstream in the form of igg.
Antibodies are transferred from one person to another through natural means such as in prenatal and postnatal relationships between mother and child.
Some antibodies can cross the placenta and enter the fetal blood.
This provides some protection for the child for a short time after birth, but eventually these deteriorate and the infant must rely on its own immune system.
Antibodies may also be transferred through breast milk.
The transfered igg from mother to fetus during pregnancy generally lasts 4 to 6 months after birth.
The immune responses reach full strength at about age 5.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies from one individual to another.
Naturally-acquired passive immunity includes antibodies given from the mother to her child during fetal development or through breast milk after birth.
There are two examples of passive naturally acquired immunity: (1) the placental transfer of igg from mother to fetus during pregnancy.
These antibodies generally last 4 to 6 months following birth.
The immune responses reach full strength at about age 5. (2) the iga and igg found in human colostrum and milk of babies who are nursed. In addition to the iga and igg, human milk also contains:.
Passive immunity, as stated earlier, refers to an immunity in which the antibodies and/or immuno-competent cells (iccs) are transferred from one host to another.
Naturally acquired active immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response.
Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen.
A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease (see vaccination vaccination,.
What is the immune system?
The function of adaptive immune responses is to destroy invading pathogens and any toxic molecules they produce.
Because these responses are destructive, it is crucial that they be made only in response to molecules that are foreign to the host and not to the molecules of the host itself.
The ability to distinguish what is foreign from what is self in this way is a fundamental feature of the adaptive immune system.
Occasionally, the system fails to make this distinction and reacts destructively against the host’s own molecules. Such autoimmune diseases can be fatal.
Moderate exercise is believed to have a beneficial effect on natural killer cell system (interleukins). 2 it also enhances immune system through stress-reduction.
3 thus encouraging your kids to opt for age-appropriate exercise regularly will not only make them physically fit but will also support their immunity.
It is widely accepted that long periods of very intensive exercise training may depress immunity; on the other hand, regular moderate intensity exercise is beneficial and thus as a parent it is important to adopt caution.
4. In immune system immunity from disease is actually conferred by two cooperative defense systems, called nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity.
Nonspecific protective mechanisms repel all microorganisms equally, while the specific immune responses are tailored to particular types of invaders. Both systems work together to thwart organisms….
Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it.
Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components.
The nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up.
Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity.
It’s true that your immune system is pulling most of the weight when it comes to fighting unwelcome bacteria in your gut.
It’s not a legion of yogurt molecules that are coming to your rescue.
The immune system does have a tendency to transform its victories into future prevention and while exposure certainly can increase your chances of resistance, it all depends on the nature of the bacteria and the level of contamination.
There may also be contradicting evidence on this front. For example, in this article , there are two conflicting lines:.
Active immunity results when exposure to a disease organism triggers the immune system to produce antibodies to that disease.
Exposure to the disease organism can occur through infection with the actual disease (resulting in natural immunity), or introduction of a killed or weakened form of the disease organism through vaccination (vaccine-induced immunity).
Either way, if an immune person comes into contact with that disease in the future, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce the antibodies needed to fight it.
It is said that you are as strong as your immune system.
Did you know that a good immune system has the power to fight anything from common cold to cancer, from stomach disorders to chronic fatigue? but what does it take to have a super – efficient immune system?.
How does the immune system work?
Some people in the community rely on herd immunity to protect them.
These groups are particularly vulnerable to disease, but often cannot safely receive vaccines: people without a fully-working immune system, including those without a working spleen.
These two immune systems work together.
When the body senses foreign substances (called antigens), the immune system works to recognize the antigens and get rid of them. B lymphocytes are triggered to make antibodies.
These specialized proteins lock onto specific antigens.
The antibodies stay in a person’s body. That way, if the immune.
Most people do not know why fevers appear so quickly, and when there is a rise in a child’s temperature, red flags shoot up in parents’ minds.
A fever actually is the body’s response to an illness, but not an illness itself.
The truth is that a high temperature shows that the immune system is working just fine to keep the body healthy.
However, it doesn’t mean you should leave your child suffering; take him to a doctor when necessary.
Adaptive immunity (also called acquired immunity), a second line of defense against pathogens , takes several days or weeks to fully develop.
However, adaptive immunity is much more complex than innate immunity because it involves antigen -specific responses and immunologic “memory. ” exposure to a specific antigen on an invading pathogen stimulates production of immune cells that target the pathogen for destruction.
Immunologic “memory” means that immune responses upon a second exposure to the same pathogen are faster and stronger because antigens are “remembered. ” primary mediators of the adaptive immune response are b lymphocytes (b cells) and t lymphocytes (t cells).
B cells produce antibodies , which are specialized proteins that recognize and bind to foreign proteins or pathogens in order to neutralize them or mark them for destruction by macrophages.
The response mediated by antibodies is called humoral immunity. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity is carried out by t cells — lymphocytes that develop in the thymus.
Different subgroups of t cells have different roles in adaptive immunity. For instance, cytotoxic t cells (killer t cells) directly attack and kill infected cells, while helper t cells enhance the responses and thus aid in the function of other lymphocytes.
Regulatory t cells, sometimes called suppressor t cells, suppress immune responses.
In addition to its vital role in innate immunity, the complement system modulates adaptive immune responses and is one example of the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems.
Components of both innate and adaptive immunity interact and work together to protect the body from infection and disease.
Fish helps build immune system and is also food for the working brain.
It contains omega-3 fatty acids as well as other healthy fats, a must to increase the activity levels of body cells. Fatty fish like salmon and tuna are great options for kids.
The purpose of vaccinations is to introduce a pathogen (i. E. Virus, bacteria, etc. ) to the immune system so that a person can develop immunity to the pathogen without having to experience disease.
So how do vaccines work if they do not cause the disease they are intended to protect against? a killed, inactivated or portion of a pathogen (virus, bacteria, etc. ) is injected into the body to get the immune system to recognize it, but since the pathogen is inactivated, it should not cause the disease.
Which is safer: Natural immunity or immunity after getting a vaccine?
It is true that natural infection almost always causes better immunity than vaccines.
Whereas immunity from disease often follows a single natural infection, immunity from vaccines usually occurs only after several doses.
However, the difference between vaccination and natural infection is the price paid for immunity.
Keep in mind that although vaccines trigger an antibody response, the presence of antibodies only show that the organism has been in contact with a natural or a vaccine antigen, but is not necessarily evidence of a protective effect or immunity.
Recent examples on the web those who catch the flu have some immunity against catching the same strain again — something that is not yet possible with the coronavirus. — nbc news, “‘people have been trying to underplay this’: why the coronavirus is different from the flu,” 14 mar. 2020 animal studies support the idea that immunity changes with the seasons. — jon cohen, science | aaas, “why do dozens of diseases wax and wane with the seasons—and will covid-19?,” 13 mar. 2020 other similar viruses such as mers did seem to induce temporary immunity once the patient recovers. — mark johnson, milwaukee journal sentinel, “‘when should i self-quarantine?’ and 10 other coronavirus questions answered by wisconsin doctors,” 12 mar. 2020 however, eng eong ooi, a professor of emerging infectious diseases at singapore’s duke-nus medical school, said the data is too new to determine definitively whether the immunity will last for a very short period of time, for years or for life. — grace hauck, usa today, “you asked us tons of questions about the coronavirus. We answered them. ,” 12 mar. 2020 there is no immunity now against the virus and no vaccine yet. — melissa eddy, bostonglobe. Com, “merkel gives germans a hard truth about the coronavirus,” 11 mar. 2020 enveloping school projects, photos, menus, and tags in a thin, clear sheet of firm plastic offers protection from warping, enhances the look and feel of the item, and grants full immunity to grease, oil, grime and water damage. — popular science, “turn paper into plastic with these fantastic laminators,” 9 mar. 2020 during the campaign, netanyahu failed in a bid to secure immunity from prosecution. — time, “netanyahu fails to secure majority in 3rd israeli election in a year, exit polls show,” 3 mar. 2020 supporters claim that the antioxidants can boost immunity and there are natural anti-microbial or anti-bacterial qualities to the plant. — emily bamforth, cleveland, “should i take elderberry supplements to ward off flu, coronavirus?,” 2 mar. 2020.
During its complex, multi-stage life cycle, the malaria parasite not only expresses a great variety of proteins at different stages, but these proteins also keep changing often.
As a result, a natural infection with malaria parasites leads to of only a partial and short lived immunity that is unable to protect the individual against a new infection.
The complex interplay of parasite proteins with the immune system of the host has also made it difficult or even impossible to develop an effective vaccine against the disease until now.
Each year malaria infects about one-half billion people, killing 1 million to 2 million and severely dampening economic development.
The parasitic plasmodium species causing malaria persist and even flourish despite the availability of tools for prevention, control, and treatment.
Those tools consist of an array of drugs, diagnostics, and insecticides and a detailed understanding of the breeding site preferences of the many anopheline mosquito vectors.
Despite the tremendous strides in biotechnology during the past 5 decades and the application to malaria of the many breakthroughs in molecular biology, genetics, immunology, and vaccinology by talented researchers, useful vaccines of any type evade us.
This review examines one factor that may contribute substantially to this failure: inadequate understanding of naturally acquired immunity (nai).
Fact: vaccines let your child build immunity in a safe, controlled environment. ”in the past decade we’ve seen a shift toward green, eco-friendly and natural living. Many of us have worked to reduce our carbon footprint, preserve the environment, and keep toxins and anything labeled “artificial” out of our homes and our bodies.
Some people want to “green our vaccines” by calling out chemicals and seemingly scary-sounding ingredients.
Blueberries contain a type of flavonoid called anthocyanin, which has antioxidant properties that can help boost a person’s immune system.
A 2016 study noted that flavonoids play an essential role in the respiratory tract’s immune defense system.
When you’re coming down with a cold or flu, everyone seems to have their own idea of what will make you feel better — but how do we separate fact from fiction? do vitamins actually help? what about chicken soup? what should we really be doing to help boost our immune systems, anyway?.
A leading figure in immunology takes readers inside the remarkably powerful human immune system.
Winner of the choice outstanding academic title of the choice acrl the immune system has incredible power to protect us from the ravages of infection.
Boosted by vaccines, it can protect us from diseases such as measles. However, the power of the immune system is a double-edged sword: an overactive immune system can wreak havoc, destroying normal tissue and causing diseases such as type i diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.
The consequences of an impaired immune system, on the other hand, are all too evident in the agonies of aids.
What can you do to protect your child from the endless array of germs and viruses he’s exposed to every day? unfortunately, in some ways, getting sick when you’re a kid is simply part of the job description. “we all enter this world with an inexperienced immune system,” says charles shubin, m. D. , an associate professor of pediatrics at the university of maryland. Slowly, children prime their immunity by battling an ongoing series of germs, viruses, and other organisms—which is why many pediatricians consider six to eight colds, bouts of flu, or ear infections per year normal.
But there are healthy habits you can adopt that will give your child’s immune system a boost.
Does exercise help or hinder our bodies’ ability to fight off infections? in the context of the novel coronavirus outbreak, that question has gained urgency and also, thanks to recent research, emergent answers.
The latest science suggests that being fit boosts our immune systems, and that even a single workout can amplify and improve our ability to fight off germs.
Vaccination utilises this secondary response by exposing the body to the antigens of a particular pathogen and activates the immune system without causing disease.
The initial response to a vaccine is similar to that of the primary response upon first exposure to a pathogen, slow and limited. Subsequent doses of the vaccine act to boost this response resulting in the production of long-lived antibodies and memory cells, as it would naturally following subsequent infections.
there are so many [foods] that the earth gives us that boost our immunity. food also plays a factor in ensuring our organs are healthy and functioning correctly.
Consuming colorful and organic foods, when accessible, supports our immune system.
Nutritionists recommend eating an anti-inflammatory diet to promote gut health, as that’s where most of our immune cells live.
Immunity by Ayurveda
No Vaccine, and with a scarcity of Masks & Hand sanitizers, Our Own Body’s Immunity is our best defense.
Ayurveda has for centuries addressed the issue of how to develop and maintain immunity. Here are a few Immunity To-Dos for your family.
Good digestion — a prime requirement
- It is advised to consume Samskrithamadhu (Ayurvedic Honey) with lime in warm water daily in the morning to keep the whole digestive tract healthy.
- Drink warm freshly boiled water with Cinnamon, Clove, Cardamom, Ginger, Black Pepper, and Star Anise. These spices improve digestion and are antimicrobial.
- Add fresh Turmeric to your soups or prepare fresh Turmeric Pickle (recipe) with each meal. Turmeric apart from its anti-inflammation properties is also very good at improving our digestion.
- Chyavanaprasam (is a good source of C vitamin) – useful for deficient immune disorders, respiratory ailments (also useful in debilitating diseases where the immunity goes down drastically).
Those who cannot take ghee/sugar of Chyavanaprasam may take Tiktakam Kwatham morning and evening. It is an ancient Ayurvedic herbal supplement tablet that is robustly anti-viral.
- Agastya Rasayana (Leham) – useful for general debility, respiratory ailments including bronchial asthma, hiccup, cough
- Dasamula Arishtam after lunch and dinner- is a very powerful and potent health tonic to boost immunity as well as strengthen the lungs and the respiratory system.
Pippalya Asavam is a very potent health tonic to kindle the digestive fire
Hair Loss Prevention Through Ayurveda
Hair loss is experienced by all of us at one or the other time. To know the causes of hair fall, it is very essential to know the structure of hair and its normal growth cycle.
Hair loss is experienced by all of us at one or the other time.
To know the causes of hair fall, it is very essential to know the structure of hair and its normal growth cycle.
Structure of hair
The hair on our scalp can be divided into two parts, the root and shaft.
The root part of hair is in the skin (epidermis) of scalp. The hair root is surrounded by a pouch like structure called follicle.
The base of hair root is in the shape of a bulb.
This bulb is indented by capillaries and nerve fibers.
The cells in the center of bulb divide.
The newly divided hair cells push the previous cells up.
The cells which move upwards die slowly forming hard hair shaft.
The hair shaft has three layers the cuticle, medulla and cortex.
Cuticle is the outer layers and protects the inner layers. It is transparent.
Healthy cuticle gives a shiny appearance for hair and unhealthy cuticle gives lifeless look
Medulla is the innermost layer composed of large cells.
Cortex is the layer between cuticle and medulla.
This contains pigment and keratin. Cortex determines the bulk and strength of hair.
The hair follicle contains oil secreting glands which make the hair shiny .
Stress and illness diminish secretion of oil and pigments causing graying of hair.
According to Ayurveda the hair is considered as a tissue which uses the same nutrients of bone and considered as a tissue which is formed as bi-product of bone tissue.
Normal cycle of hair growth.
About 10 % of the hair on the scalp is in a resting phase at any given time.
The resting hair falls after 2 to 3 months and new hair starts growing in its place.
The growing phase continues for 2.25 to 6 yrs. During this phase each hair grows approximately 1 cm per month.
At any given time about 90% of the hair on scalp will be in growing phase.
Few strands of hair fall as the part of normal hair growth cycle.
But some people may experience excessive hair fall which is more than normal cycle. Excessive hair loss can affect men, women and children.
Causes of hair loss
1. Hormonal imbalance in men and women: In men high concentration of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in hair follicles causes hair fall. In women hormonal imbalances during pregnancy and after delivery cause hair fall.
2. High amount of sebum in scalp clogs pores of scalp and prevent nutrition to hair follicle.
3. Inadequate nutrition causes hair fall.
4. Stress, worry, lack of sleep, worry and anxiety cause hair fall
5. Long standing diseases like typhoid, viral infections, anemia, surgery etc cause general debility which lead to hair fall
6. Some medicines used for gout, chemo therapy of cancer , birth control pills , antidepressants etc cause hair fall
7. Diseases like lupus, diabetes cause hair fall.
8. Tying hair tightly pulls the hair from follicles and cause traction alopecia.
9. Heredity also causes hair fall.
10. Dandruff or Fungal infection of scalp.
11. Accumulation of dirt on scalp causes blocking of pores and weakens hair roots. This leads to hair fall.
According to ayurveda the causes of hair loss are described as follows
1. Too much exposure to dust, sunlight, water and other pollutants.
2. Too much of sweating.
3. Irregular sleeping pattern.
4. Anxiety, depression, insomnia.
5. Unhygienic way of living
7. Alcohol consumption.
Hair loss Remedies
1. Liberal intake of vitamins.
2. High protein and iron rich diet.
3. Consumption of raw vegetables, fresh fruits, salads, green leafy vegetables regularly.
4. Washing hair regularly ( twice weekly ) with suitable shampoo.
5. Using relaxing techniques to overcome stress, anxiety and sleeplessness.
6. Preventing fungal infections of scalp.
7. Preventing hairstyles which pull hair.
Due to these causes the tridoshas get vitiated and cause hair loss. The vitiated doshas affect the scalp skin and cause hair fall occurs. Medicated oil with the herbs Bhringaraja ( Eclipta Alba ), Amalaki ( Embelica officinalis ), Haritaki ( Terminalia chebula ) and Vibhitaki ( Terminalia bellirica ) is a best remedy for hair fall.