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Gatte- sance and are still considered pivotal in medical fossé the idea to explore curative properties of history buy 100mg viagra jelly mastercard. One of Galen’s ideas was that light and in terms of “I am order viagra jelly 100 mg visa,” which refer to the whole person. He is also believed to have said, “He cures son (1881–1959) in the 1930s immigrated to the most in whom most are confident,” referring to a United States and developed nutritional treatments mind-body influence on healing and the relation- for diabetes, migraines, tuberculosis, and cancer. Born in Wongrowitz, Germany, and considered a humanitarian physician, Gerson treated Dr. Albert Schweitzer for diabetes and other prob- designating herbs that are sweet-tasting, such as lems, believed that a low-salt vegan diet; additional gan mao ling, prescribed for the initial symptoms of fruit and vegetable juices; various supplements a cold. His meth- Indian nationalist, nonviolent movement against ods proved successful for patients in various stages the British and known as father of his country of melanoma; survival rates studied in 153 of Ger- (1869–1948) who championed the integration of son’s cancer patients were higher than those of mind, body, and spirit. For example, he believed patients receiving conventional treatment for exercise was as necessary to the quality of life as melanoma. Gerson’s daughter, Charlotte, and her air, water, and food and that lack of exercise staff continue his work at The Gerson Institute, in affected the mind as well. For “Footwork” developed by Avi Grinberg that example, raw adrenal glandular is used to stimu- attempts to prevent pain and alleviate chronic pain late the adrenal glands and help in the treatment of by teaching practitioners and laypeople to discern chronic fatigue syndrome, arthritis, diabetes, infec- the steps along the process of a physical or emo- tions, and ulcers. Other essential glandulars include tional crisis and use the techniques of Footwork to raw brain, raw female complex, raw heart, raw counteract them. Glandular, or cellular, ther- thought patterns, emotions, senses, and personal apy is often combined with the administration of a experience as the “theme” of a meditative, relax- specific amino acid and is based on the idea that ation exercise. For example, the radiation oncologist and Among the “superfoods” are green and blue-green author O. Carl Simonton successfully employed algae, chlorella, spirulina, aloe vera, barley grass, guided imagery as a technique cancer patients can wheat grass, and alfalfa. Imagery is also beneficial for the treatment of of chlorophyll, the green coloration of plants that chronic headaches, back pain, allergies, hyperten- facilitates the process of photosynthesis. Photosyn- sion, gastrointestinal spasms and disease, autoim- thesis involves the light absorbed by chlorophyll as mune diseases, injuries and trauma, irregular our primary source of energy—generally, the for- heartbeat, and gynecological problems. Aloe vera juice from the succulent plant gunas are part of the Samkhya philosophy of cre- is a natural oxygenator, antiseptic, astringent, and ation, which includes the beliefs that sound is the topical treatment for burns, ulcerations, and skin guna of ether, touch is the guna of air, sight is the disorders. Green and other grasses contain large guna of fire, taste is the guna of water, and smell is gunas 51 the guna of earth. Ether, air, fire, water, and earth male and female, slow and fast, and dull and sharp. The When one understands the universe in these practice of Ayurveda, also called the science of daily terms, he or she can recognize characteristics of living, is rooted in the ancient Indian system of both health and illness. The Ayurvedic physician Charak estab- in Ayurveda are based on the action and reaction of lished the idea that there are 20 fundamental the 20 gunas. The German physi- oped his method and remedies and published more cian (1753–1843) who developed the theory and of his findings in Dr. Hufeland’s German pharma- practice of modern homeopathy, an alternative cology review, Journal of Practical Pharmacology medical discipline based on the concept Similia sim- and Surgery, under the title “Essay on a New Prin- ilibus curantur—”Like cures like. Born Friedrich the single dry dose and the wait-and-watch Christian Samuel in Meissen, Germany, Hahne- philosophies characteristic of homeopathy, carried mann studied medicine in Leipzig. He married into the 20th century by the prominent home- Henriette Kuchler (1764–1830), the adopted opath James Tyler Kent. Some of Hahnemann’s daughter of the owners of the Mohren-Apotheke teachings have been lost, including his views on in Dessau, and they had 11 children. Five years Hippocratic temperaments, symptomatology, after Henriette died, he married again. He is thetic constitutions, and case management buried in Père Lachaise cemetery in France. Four bronze panels on the wall por- ful and spiritual awareness of his or her own emo- tray Hahnemann in his days as a medical student, tions, issues, insights, and coping mechanisms. Developed by Ron Kurtz, author of Body- opathy” in 1808, Hahnemann also published his Centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi Method theories in the works “Essay on a New Principle” (Mendocino, Calif. The Hellerwork program consists of eleven 90-minute sessions, each of which focuses Hay, Louise American metaphysical teacher and on a combination of physical movement and author of 18 books, including You Can Heal Your Life manipulation to reduce stress and foster energy and (Carson, Calif. Hellerwork is not rec- The Mental Causes for Physical Illness and the Meta- ommended for individuals with cancer, rheumatoid physical Ways to Overcome Them (Hay House, 1994). Herbs Hellerwork Named for the aerospace engineer have always been recognized for their various Joseph Heller, this is a type of bodywork similar to effects on health. Mint, for example, is perhaps the Rolfing involving deep tissue massage and “move- most common remedy for digestive problems and ment reeducation,” geared toward relieving muscu- is often an ingredient in preparations for indiges- lar tension; stress, back, neck, and shoulder pain; tion and other gastrointestinal disturbances, and sports injuries; and respiratory ailments. Heller was echinacea is known to have potent immune-stim- born in Poland in 1940, was educated in Europe, ulating properties.

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Overall viagra jelly 100mg without prescription, efforts to test homeo- and potency) fail to recognize that current herbals have as pathic products have been negative (Ernst purchase viagra jelly 100 mg amex, 2002) and it has been great or greater potential toxicities, often putting their faith in argued that no more resource should be wasted on testing prod- the ‘naturalness’ of the herbal product as an assurance of ucts on the lunatic fringe, even when they come with royal safety. This chapter briefly reviews the most commonly used endorsement and (disgracefully) public funding. The recent increase in the use of herbal remedies by and this is produced along with many additional sulphur normal healthy humans, as well as patients, is likely to be mul- compounds by the action of the enzyme allinase when fresh tifactorial and related to: (1) patient dissatisfaction with con- garlic is crushed or chewed. Initial clinical trials suggested the ventional medicine; (2) patient desire to take more control of potential of garlic to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride, their medical treatment; and (3) philosophical/cultural bias. Garlic can alter blood coagulability by decreas- benefits have been claimed for many indications (see below). Its pharmacologic properties include actions as a phytoestro- gen, suggesting that its use, as with soy supplementation, Adverse effects could be disadvantageous in women with oestrogen-sensitive The adverse effects of garlic use involve gastro-intestinal cancers (e. The clinical importance of these interactions is uncer- Drug interactions tain, but potentially appreciable. As with other herbs There are several types of ginseng (Siberian, Asian, American (e. Many chemical compounds have been identi- Originating from Chinese medicine, ginkgo (derived from the fied from Echinacea species and it is currently not possible to nuts of Ginkgo biloba – a beautiful and threatened tree rather attribute the pharmacological effects to any specific substance. It has been used Many studies of echinacea have pointed to effects on the immune in patients with asthma, brain trauma, cochlear deafness, system. Proposed mechanisms of action include increased circu- depression, retinitis, impotence, myocardial reperfusion and lating granulocytes, enhanced phagocytosis, inhibition of virus vertigo. The evidence for efficacy in many of these conditions proliferation, cytokine activation, increased T-lymphocyte pro- is unconvincing. Echinacea ginkgo extract did not improve cognitive function, may have is currently most widely used in attempts to prevent the com- contributed to a decline of ginkgo from the top-selling pos- mon cold and influenza symptoms, but is also used for Candida ition it had held among such products since 1995. One of the infections, chronic respiratory infections, prostatitis and rheuma- principal components of ginkgo, ginkgolide B, is a moderately toid arthritis. Well-controlled studies have shown little, if any, potent antagonist of platelet-activating factor. One recent placebo-controlled study of echinacea in the effects claimed for ginkgo products are postulated to be due to treatment of the common cold actually suggested echinacea did monamine oxidase inhibition by ginkgolides. Adverse effects Serious or fatal side effects of gingko include spontaneous Adverse effects bleeding, fatal intracerebral bleeding, seizures and anaphyl- Adverse effects of echinacea use involve rashes, including actic shock. Less serious side effects are nausea, vomiting, flat- erythema multiforme, arthralgias, allergic reactions, gastro- ulence, diarrhoea, headaches and pruritus. Drug interactions In vitro data suggest ginkgo can inhibit hepatic drug metab- Drug interactions olizing enzymes. In another study, depending on their structures, concentrations and assay con- however, ginkgo increased the plasma concentrations of the ditions. The oral bioavailability of in the phenotyping studies is possibly related to the highly midazolam in this study was significantly increased from 24 variable phytochemical composition of commercially available to 36% in the presence of echinacea, indicating that the hepatic ginkgo extracts. Collectively, these clinical data at the hepatic and intestinal sites and the route of administra- indicate that ginkgo may interfere with the pharmacokinetics tion. It is prudent to discourage soy-derived products in plant native to Europe, North America and western Asia, is patients with oestrogen-dependent tumours (e. Currently, St John’s wort is still widely used Furthermore, as genistein can negate the inhibitory effect of for the treatment of mild to moderate depression and other tamoxifen on breast cancer growth, women taking this agent nervous conditions. Acute vasodilatation caused by varying results of therapy with St John’s wort for depressive 17β-oestradiol is mediated by nitric oxide, and genistein and mood disorders. More recently, a randomized, double- the possibility of beneficial vascular effects. These include catechin-type tannins and condensed-type proanthocyanidins, flavonoids (mostly Drug interactions hyperoside, rutin, quercetin and kaempferol), biflavonoids Isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, also inhibit oxida- (e. Given that these trans- porters are involved in the intestinal absorption and biliary secre- tion of many drugs, it is reasonable to suspect that soy may alter drug absorption and/or disposition of such agents in humans. The main constituents of saw palmetto include carbohydrates, fixed oils, steroids, flavonoids, resin, tannin and volatile oil. Saw palmetto is used in men with the hope of ‘toning and strengthening the reproductive system, and specifically for symptoms of prostate enlargement’. In women, the principal use of saw palmetto is to (hopefully) reduce ovarian enlargement and to increase the size of small breasts. Although no drug interactions with, or medical contraindications to, the use of saw palmetto have been reported, it would be prudent to avoid concomitant use with other hormonal therapies, especially oestrogens, and in patients with oestrogen-dependent cancers. Adverse effects The adverse effects of saw palmetto involve gastro-intestinal Figure 17. Chondroitin inhibits the enzymes the putative antidepressant effects of St John’s wort, the phar- that degrade cartilage. Drug controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of glu- interactions with therapeutic failure of concomitant drugs, cosamine on disease progression and supported the use of e. Adverse effects Drug interactions The adverse effects associated with glucosamine involve Many clinical trials are now reporting significant pharmacoki- gastro-intestinal disturbances, including dyspepsia, nausea, netic interactions with long-term treatment with St John’s constipation and diarrhoea, skin rashes and allergic reactions wort and drugs from a variety of therapeutic classes.

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Several hours or a day before the headache cheap viagra jelly 100mg free shipping, some people experience a prodrome—feelings of elation or intense energy 100 mg viagra jelly free shipping, cravings for sweets, thirst, drowsiness, irritability, or depression. The choice of treatment depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches and other existing medical problems. Codeine and other narcotic pain relievers can be addictive and cause constipation and other problems, so they should be used only when absolutely necessary. These drugs are rapid acting and effective in relieving the pain, nausea, and sensitivity to light. Examples include sumatriptan (Imitrex), rizatriptan (Maxalt), naratriptan (Amerge), and zolmitriptan (Zomig). There are drugs that can be taken regularly to prevent migraines (reduce the frequency). Examples include beta-blockers (propranolol), calcium channel blockers (verapamil), and antidepres- sants (amitriptyline and nortriptyline). These drugs can cause serious side effects, so speak to your doctor and pharmacist. Foods to avoid: • Food additives, preservatives, and dyes can trigger migraines (benzoic acid, tartrazine). Limit foods high in salt (snack foods, deli meats) and avoid using the salt shaker. Try an elimination diet to determine if food sensitivities are triggering your migraines (see Appendix D). This relaxation technique uses special equipment to teach you how to monitor and control certain physical responses, such as muscle tension. Do moderate-intensity activities (walking, swimming, and cycling) and warm up slowly because sudden, intense activity can trigger a headache. Record what you ate that day and any 334 factors that you feel could have triggered the event, such as stress, reaction to a smell, or light. This information will also be helpful to your doctor in determining a treatment strategy. Top Recommended Supplements M Butterbur: Reduces inflammation and spasms in cerebral blood vessels. Two studies have found that it significantly reduces the frequency of migraine attacks. Look for a product standardized to contain at least 15 percent pet- asins, the main active ingredient. Feverfew: Several studies have shown that it can reduce the severity and frequency of migraines. It may work by modulating serotonin release and reducing production of inflammatory substances in the brain. Magnesium: Those with migraines often have low magnesium levels, which can lead to cerebral artery spasm and increase the release of substances that cause pain. Three studies have found that magnesium supplements can significantly reduce migraine attacks. Complementary Supplements Fish oils: Reduce inflammation and blood vessel spasms and support healthy brain function. Preliminary research shows the supplements can reduce frequency and severity of migraines. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): Shown to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine head- aches. Eat small, frequent meals and include more whole grains, nuts, seeds, and fish in your diet. When suffering with a migraine, use cold packs on the head and neck, rest in a dark room, and use medications only if necessary. This results in inflammation and injury to the sheath and M ultimately to the nerves that it surrounds. Over time this damage can slow or block the nerve signals that control muscle coordination, strength, sensation, and vision, causing fatigue, numbness, loss of balance, impaired vision, and disability. It is thought that several factors may be involved, such as genetic predisposition, environment, and exposure to a viral infection. It is known that lifestyle factors, such as stress and poor nutrition, can exac- erbate symptoms. There are medications, dietary approaches, and supplements that can help reduce symptoms and promote remission. One of the proteins in milk mimics a particular protein affiliated with human myelin. These drugs are classed as “partially effective” in reducing relapses and worsening of the disease. Examples include: Beta interferons: Interferon beta-1b (Betaseron) and interferon beta-1a (Avonex, Re- bif) are genetically engineered copies of proteins that occur naturally in your body. They are taken by injection and help fight viral infection and regulate your immune system. These drugs reduce but don’t eliminate flare-ups, they don’t reverse damage, and they haven’t been proven to significantly alter long-term development of perma- nent disability.

They’re small cheap 100mg viagra jelly with visa, egg-shaped capsules of connective tissue sur- rounding a spiraled end of a dendrite cheap viagra jelly 100mg amex. Most abundant in sensitive skin areas such as the lips and fingertips, these corpuscles and free nerve endings can sense a quick touch but not a sustained one. Pacinian corpuscles: These deep-pressure mechanoreceptors are dendrites surrounded by concentric layers of connective tissue. Found deep within the dermis, they respond to deep or firm pressure and vibrations. Hair nerve endings: These mechanoreceptors respond to a change in position of a hair. There are two primary temperature receptors, one for heat and one for cold: End-bulbs of Krause: Also known as Krause’s corpuscles, these cold receptors usually activate below 68 degrees F (20 degrees C). They consist of a bulbous capsule surrounding the dendrite and are commonly found throughout the body in the dermis as well as in the lips, the tongue, and the conjunctiva of the eyes. Brushes of Ruffini: Also known as Ruffini cylinders or Ruffini’s corpuscles, these warmth receptors respond to temperatures between 77 degrees and 113 degrees F (25 degrees to 45 degrees C). Found primarily in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, they’re dendrite endings enclosed in a flattened capsule. Because there are fewer of them than Krause’s end-bulbs and because they lie in deeper tissue, the body is less sensitive to heat than to cold. In addition to the receptors for touch and temperature, the dermis has neuromuscular spindles (also called proprioceptors) that transmit information to the spinal cord and brain about the lengths and tensions of muscles. This information helps provide awareness of the body’s position and the relative position of body parts. End-bulbs of Krause are receptors for cold that usually are activated at temperatures below a. Wigging out about hair Like most mammals, hair covers the entire human body except for the lips, eyelids, palms of the hands, soles of the feet, nipples, and portions of external reproductive organs. But human body hair generally is sparser and much lighter in color than that sported by most other mammals. A thick head of hair protects the scalp from exposure to the sun’s harmful rays and limits heat loss. The average adult has about 5 million hairs, with about 100,000 of those growing from the scalp. Normal hair loss from an adult scalp is about 70 to 100 hairs each day, although baldness can result from genetic factors, hormonal imbalances, scalp injuries, disease, dietary deficien- cies, radiation, or chemotherapy. Each hair grows at an angle from a follicle embedded in the epidermis and extending into the dermis; scalp hairs sometimes reach as far as the hypodermis. Nerves reach the hair at the follicle’s expanded base, called the bulb, where a nipple-shaped papilla of connective tissue and capillaries provide nutrients to the growing hair. Epithelial cells in the bulb divide to produce the hair’s shaft (the part that extends out of the folli- cle). Each scalp hair grows for two to three years at a rate of about ⁄13 to ⁄12 millimeter per day, or 10 to 18 centimeters per year. When mature, the hair rests for three or four months before slowly losing its attachment. Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 121 Hair pigment (which is melanin, just as in the skin) is produced by melanocytes in the follicle and transferred to the hair’s cortex and medulla cells. Three types of melanin — black, brown, and yellow — combine in different quantities for each individual to pro- duce different hair colors ranging from light blonde to black. Gray and white hairs grow in when melanin levels decrease and air pockets form where the pigment used to be. Hair becomes oily over time thanks to sebum, a mixture of cholesterol, fats, and other substances secreted from a sebaceous (or holocrine) gland found next to each follicle. Attached to each follicle is a smooth muscle called an arrector pili (literally “raised hair”) that both applies pressure to the sebaceous gland and straight- ens the hair shaft, depressing the skin in a pattern called goose bumps or goose pimples. Each hair is made up of three concentric layers of keratinized cells: A central core, called the medulla, consists of large cells containing eleidin that are separated by air spaces; in fine hair, the medulla may be small or entirely absent. A cortex surrounding the medulla forms the major part of the hair shaft with sev- eral layers of flattened cells. The cortex also has elongated pigment-bearing cells in dark hair and air pockets in white hair. The outermost cuticle is a single layer of overlapping cells with the free end pointing upward. The cuticle strengthens and compacts the inner layers, but abrasion tends to wear away the end of the shaft, exposing the medulla and cortex in a pattern known as split ends. Nailing the fingers and toes Human nails (which actually are vestigial claws) have three parts: a root bed at the nail base, a body that’s attached to the fingertip, and a free edge that grows beyond the end of the finger or toe. Heavily cornified tissue forms the nails from modified strata corneum and lucidum.

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