R. Bandaro. Northwest Nazarene University.
In short zenegra 100 mg overnight delivery, I think that this book will provide a useful and productive synthesis between your goals and the goals of your students discount zenegra 100 mg amex. I have tried to focus on the forest rather than the trees and to bring psychology to life—in ways that really matter—for the students. At the same time, the book maintains content and conceptual rigor, with a strong focus on the fundamental principles of empiricism and the scientific method. The word “psychology‖ comes from the Greek words “psyche,‖ meaning life, and “logos,‖ meaning explanation. Psychology is a popular major for students, a popular topic in the public media, and a part of our everyday lives. Phil feature psychologists who provide personal advice to those with personal or family difficulties. And many people have direct knowledge about psychology because they have visited psychologists, for instance, school counselors, family therapists, and religious, marriage, or bereavement counselors. Because we are frequently exposed to the work of psychologists in our everyday lives, we all have an idea about what psychology is and what psychologists do. Psychologists do work in forensic fields, and they do provide counseling and therapy for people in distress. But there are hundreds of thousands of psychologists in the world, and most of them work in other places, doing work that you are probably not aware of. Most psychologists work in research laboratories, hospitals, and other field settings where they study the behavior of humans and animals. For instance, my colleagues in the Psychology Department at the University of Maryland study such diverse topics as anxiety in children, the interpretation of dreams, the effects of caffeine on thinking, how birds recognize each other, how praying mantises hear, how people from different cultures react differently in negotiation, and the factors that lead people to engage in terrorism. Other psychologists study such topics as alcohol and drug addiction, memory, emotion, hypnosis, love, what makes people aggressive or helpful, and the psychologies of politics, prejudice, culture, and religion. Psychologists also work in schools and businesses, and they use a variety of methods, including observation, questionnaires, interviews, and laboratory studies, to help them understand behavior. We will consider how psychologists conduct scientific research, with an overview of some of the most important approaches used and topics studied by psychologists, and also consider the variety of fields in which psychologists work and the careers that are available to people with psychology degrees. I expect that you may find that at least some of your preconceptions about psychology will be challenged and changed, and you will learn that psychology is a field that will provide you with new ways of thinking about your own thoughts, feelings, and actions. Explain why using our intuition about everyday behavior is insufficient for a complete understanding of the causes of behavior. Describe the difference between values and facts and explain how the scientific method is used to differentiate between the two. Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist- practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen again, and how to reproduce or change them. It has been argued that people are “everyday scientists‖ who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. When we perform poorly on an important test, we try to understand what caused our failure to remember or understand the material and what might help us do better the next time. When our good friends Monisha and Charlie break up, despite the fact that they appeared to have a relationship made in heaven, we try to determine what happened. When we contemplate the rise of terrorist acts around the world, we try to investigate the causes of this problem by looking at the terrorists themselves, the situation around them, and others’ responses to them. The Problem of Intuition The results of these “everyday‖ research projects can teach us many principles of human behavior. We learn through experience that if we give someone bad news, he or she may blame us even though the news was not our fault. We see that aggressive behavior occurs frequently in our society, and we develop theories to explain why this is so. In fact, much research in psychology involves the scientific study of everyday behavior (Heider,  1958; Kelley, 1967). The problem, however, with the way people collect and interpret data in their everyday lives is that they are not always particularly thorough. Often, when one explanation for an event seems “right,‖ we adopt that explanation as the truth even when other explanations are possible and potentially more accurate. For example, eyewitnesses to violent crimes are often extremely confident in their identifications of the perpetrators of these crimes. But research finds that eyewitnesses are no less confident in their identifications when they are incorrect than when they  are correct (Cutler & Wells, 2009; Wells & Hasel, 2008). Furthermore, psychologists have also found that there are a variety of cognitive and motivational biases that frequently influence our perceptions and lead us to draw erroneous conclusions (Fiske & Taylor, 2007; Hsee & Hastie, Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In summary, accepting explanations for events without testing them thoroughly may lead us to think that we know the causes of things when we really do not. Research Focus: Unconscious Preferences for the Letters of Our Own Name A study reported in the Journal of Consumer Research (Brendl, Chattopadhyay, Pelham, & Carvallo,  2005) demonstrates the extent to which people can be unaware of the causes of their own behavior.
Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care generic zenegra 100 mg with visa, 7th Edition generic zenegra 100 mg. The function of which of the following female organs is to transport a mature ovum from an d. The cervix is a pear-shaped organ about supports the diagnosis of Sexual Dysfunction: 3 inches long located between the urinary Dyspareunia? The uterus consists of three layers: the cannot have a sexual relationship with her perimetrium, the myometrium, and the husband because he will be repulsed by endometrium. A 50-year-old woman with a history of tion of the uterus that connects the uterus stroke is afraid to have sex with her partner and the cervix. A 39-year-old alcoholic woman is no longer is generally experienced at about 15 years interested in having sex with her partner. In the ovaries, in a typical 28-day cycle, the describe common sexual orientations? In the luteal phase, the leftover empty folli- sexual fulﬁllment with a person of the cle ﬁlls with a yellow pigment and is then opposite gender. At day 28 of the menstrual cycle, menses sexual fulﬁllment with a person of the same begin as a result of the uterus shedding the gender. A bisexual is a person of a certain biologic gender with the feelings of the opposite 4. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped device describe alternative forms of sexual expression? Pedophilia is a term used to describe the practice of adults gaining sexual fulﬁllment 1. Celibacy involves the use of inanimate yellow pigment and is then called the cor- objects to stimulate ejaculation. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus in which a man consistently reaches luteum begins to disintegrate. Retarded ejaculation refers to the man’s inability to ejaculate into the vagina, or delayed intravaginal ejaculation. Dyspareunia is a condition in which the which they occur in the sexual response vaginal opening closes tightly and prevents cycle. There is a heightened feeling of physical or pain characterized by burning, stinging, pleasure followed by overwhelming release irritation, or rawness of the female genitalia and involuntary contraction of the genitals. Continuous abstinence depends on and intensiﬁes; the woman’s clitoris retracts charting a woman’s fertility pattern. Pregnancy cannot occur with coitus interruptus because sperm is kept out of the vagina. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. One who experiences sexual fulﬁllment exhibits and experiences maleness or femaleness with a person of the opposite gender physically, emotionally, and mentally. Diabetes: contraceptive consisting of six capsules placed under the skin of the woman’s upper arm. Cardiovascular disease: daily circulating levels of ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin to prevent conception. Person of a certain biologic gender with the feelings of the opposite sex Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. List three general categories of patients who in the following phases of the sexual response should have a sexual history recorded by the cycle. List three interview questions a nurse may use during a sexual history when assessing a male b. Complete the following table, listing the advantages and disadvantages associated with Male: contraceptive methods. Sterilization Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Write down the interview questions you would use to obtain a sexual history from the following patients. An 18-year-old female victim of date rape who is brought to the emergency room for testing and treatment 2.
This is equivalent to the number of milliliters of pure alcohol per 100 mL of the drink buy zenegra 100mg on-line. In the United States discount 100 mg zenegra free shipping, alcoholic strengths are measured in terms of percentage proof. Most people who have alcohol in the body have drunk it, although it can be absorbed into the systemic circulation through the lungs (blood alcohol concentrations of up to 50 mg/100 mL have been achieved after breathing alcohol/air mixtures for several hours) (128). Once ingested, alcohol is subsequently absorbed into the body by a pro- cess of passive diffusion that occurs across the mucosal surfaces of the gas- trointestinal tract (129). As liquids pass quickly through the mouth and esophagus, little absorption occurs until alcohol has reached the stomach. The rate of absorption is maximal in the duodenum, because its mucosa is thinner and blood supply more abundant than that of the stomach. Accordingly, any condition that delivers alcohol into the small intestine more quickly than nor- mal, such as gastrectomy, will lead to more rapid absorption and an earlier, higher peak blood alcohol level (130). As soon as alcohol enters the bloodstream, mechanisms for its removal come into action. Approximately 5–10% of the total amount absorbed is excreted unchanged in breath, urine, and sweat (129), an important factor that allows the estimation of blood alcohol concentrations from the levels in urine and breath. The remaining 90–95% of alcohol is oxidized in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase to form acetaldehyde, and this is further metabo- lized to acetate (acetic acid). The rate of absorption is much faster than the rate of elimination, giving rise to the characteristic blood alcohol curve, as described by several researchers (Fig. Generally speaking, the peak blood alcohol concentration is reached 30–60 minutes after drinking, although the range may be anything from 20 minutes to 3 hours. However, the peak blood alcohol concentration, the time taken to reach the peak, the area under the blood alcohol curve, and the time taken to reach a zero blood alcohol level varies from person to person and within the same person over time (135). Sex and Weight Alcohol is highly hydrophilic, so once it enters the systemic circulation, it is distributed evenly throughout total body water (Vd, or the volume of dis- tribution). In general, the larger the person the larger the Vd, so that if two different sized males drink the same quantity of alcohol, a higher peak con- centration will be reached in the lighter of the two because he will have a smaller Vd for the alcohol to distribute itself throughout. Similarly, because 308 Stark and Norfolk women have more body fat compared with men, and fat contains no water, higher peak alcohol levels are achieved in women than in men of the same weight. Duration of Drinking If a volume of alcohol is consumed over a prolonged period, it may be eliminated almost as quickly as it is absorbed, giving rise to a much lower peak alcohol concentration. Nature of the Drink Consumed The rate of alcohol absorption increases with the concentration of the ingested solution to levels between 10 and 20%, at which point absorption is maximal. Because alcohol is absorbed by passive diffusion, the rate of ab- sorption is slower with drinks of lesser strength because of a lower concentra- tion gradient. Furthermore, the larger volumes involved may also delay gastric emptying and further slow absorption. By contrast, when the alcohol concen- tration of drinks exceeds 20%, the alcohol irritates the gastric mucosa and pyloric sphincter, causing increased secretion of mucus and delayed gastric emptying, thus slowing absorption. Food in the Stomach Studies have shown that eating a full meal before drinking can reduce the peak alcohol level by an average of 9–23% (129,136–138). The presence of food in the stomach reduces the rate of gastric emptying, dilutes the alcohol that enters the stomach, and limits the contact between the alcohol and the gastric mucosa. Physiological Factors and Genetic Variation Factors, such as stomach wall permeability, blood supply to the alimen- tary tract, and the rate of gastric emptying, vary from person to person and from time to time in the same person. Drugs The interaction between alcohol and drugs, either prescribed or illicit, is important because many detainees take other drugs in conjunction with alco- hol (2). Substance Misuse 309 Table 14 Drugs That Affect the Rate of Stomach Emptying and So Influence the Rate of Alcohol Absorption • Drugs that slow gastric emptying: Drugs with anticholinergic actions, such as: atropine; chlorpromazine; tricyclic antidepressants Drugs with an adrenergic action, such as: amphetamines Drugs with an opioid action, such as: antidiarrheal medicines; codeine and dihydrocodeine; diamorphine (heroin); methadone; dextropropoxyphene (in co-proxamol) • Drugs that hasten stomach emptying, such as: metoclopramide; cisapride; erythromycin Adapted from ref. However, several drugs may influence the rate of alcohol absorption by virtue of their affect on the rate of gastric emptying (Table 14). Rate of Elimination The rate of elimination of alcohol has been determined experimentally. Reported values range from approx 10 mg/100 mL of blood per hour (mg/dL/h) to 25 mg/dL/h, with an average of 15–18. Ha- bituation to alcohol is the single most important factor affecting the rate of elimi- nation. One recent study reported the rate of ethanol disappearance in 22 alcoholics as ranging from 13 to 36 mg/dL/h, with an average of 22 mg/dL/h (140). The increased rate of elimination is believed to be because chronic alco- holics have facilitated liver enzyme systems. The apparent stimulatory effects of alcohol occur because it acts first on the so-called higher centers of the brain that govern inhibition (141). Although there is general agreement on the sequence of clinical effects caused by drinking alcohol, the blood alcohol concentrations at which these effects occur vary in different subjects. The difference in susceptibility is most marked between habituated and nonhabituated drinkers, but tolerance to the effects remains variable even within these broad categories (142,143). It should be noted that the effects are more pronounced when blood alcohol levels are rising than when falling.
The nurse reduced opportunities for conversation; has not should also investigate if hearing aids would help sought help until now Mr order 100mg zenegra overnight delivery. The nurse should Expected Outcome: After medical evaluation of hear- assess both Mr purchase zenegra 100mg otc. Pirolla and his wife to see how they ing loss and treatment, patient demonstrates better are coping with the changes in their social environ- coping skills by increasing amount of time he ment. The nurse should Nursing Interventions: incorporate knowledge of the guidelines for a. Explain that hearing loss often accompanies communicating both with persons with reduced aging and that a medical evaluation is important vision and hearing when developing a teaching to provide proper treatment. What would be a successful outcome for this tion skills and preventing social isolation. Pirolla states that he is adapting to hearing aid has enabled patient to comprehend his condition and receiving new sensory most one-to-one conversations, but ability to hear stimulation from his environment. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, and/or gate possibility of learning to lip-read. No longer ethical/legal competencies are most likely to bring avoids company, especially if it is only one or two about the desired outcome? Patient strengths: Healthy until now; wife is support- and how the body responds, including sensoristasis ive; previous history of strong interactional skills and adaptation; ability to integrate knowledge of Personal strengths: Recognize signiﬁcance of sensory alterations, including factors contributing sensory/perceptual alterations; able to distinguish to disturbed sensory perceptions changes in perceptual abilities normally related to Interpersonal: demonstration of the ability to aging from those indicating treatable medical prob- empathize and communicate with patients with lems; able to establish trusting relationship with sensory deﬁcits and interact effectively with older patients patients and their caregivers. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Diabetes: Some men may be candidates for a revealed a partial sensorineural loss that was distort- penile prosthesis; pharmacologic management of ing his perception of certain frequencies; partially erectile dysfunction may be indicated. Cardiovascular disease: Teach gradual close to speaker, but in a one-to-one conversation, resumption of sexual activity, comfortable posi- his responses demonstrate his ability to correctly tion for affected partner. Loss of body part: Teach acceptance of body reports that he still has great difﬁculty listening in image. Spinal cord injury: Promote stimulation of other “more like his old self” when one or two friends erogenous zones. Female: The breasts of the woman swell and nip- ples become erect; vaginal lubricant seeps out of b c a d e body; upper two thirds of vagina expand; clitoris enlarges and emerges slightly from clitoral hood; 2. Male: Erection of the penis caused by increased c d e b a f congestion with blood; scrotum noticeably ele- vates, thickens, and enlarges. Chronic pain: Teach altered or modiﬁed deferens, and rectum; most often accompanied positions for coitus. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Any patient whose illness will affect sexual func- Female: Return to normal body functioning; tioning and behavior in any way feelings of relaxation, fatigue, and fulﬁllment; 5. Any patient who is currently experiencing a sex- ual dysfunction or problem Method Advantages Disadvantages a. Natural family planning Methods can be effective in avoiding Requires abstinence during ovulation pregnancy if mutual understanding, and complete understanding of the support, and motivation exist between signs and symptoms of ovulation. There are no side effects (as in hormonal methods) and no messy devices to insert. Intrauterine devices High rate of effectiveness; little care or Serious side effects and motivation on part of patient is necessary; complications. Hormonal methods Many beneﬁcial noncontraceptive effects, Cost may be prohibitive to some; for example, protecting women against compliance is necessary; some development of breast, ovarian, and women should not take the pill endometrial cancer; almost 100% effective due to physiologic disorders or when taken as directed. Sterilization After initial surgery and recheck, no further Should be considered permanent compliance is necessary; almost 100% and irreversible. The nurse should also explore the emotional Sample Answers and psychological effects of the dysfunction on 1. What patient teaching should bers of the healthcare team to develop an effective be incorporated into the plan of care? Patient teaching could include informa- The nurse should review the effects of Mr. Smith’s tion about medications to treat impotence and the conditions on sexual function and assess his possibility of having a penile implant. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Expected Outcome: By next meeting, 11/17/11, Following an adjustment to his medications, Mr. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, and/or Nursing Interventions: ethical/legal competencies are most likely to bring a. Explore with the patient the source of the ity to identify areas of sexual dysfunction for the beliefs/values he learned at home and assist in patient with a history of diabetes and hypertension determining the role he wants these beliefs/val- experiencing impotence. Compare the options of abstinence and becom- establish trusting relationships and build rapport ing sexually active, and perform related sexual with a patient experiencing impotence.
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